Quercus infectoria

 Quercus infectoria, the Aleppo oak, is a species of oak, bearing galls that have been traditionally used for centuries in Asia medicinally. Manjakani is the name used in Malaysia for the galls; these have been used for centuries in softening leather and in making black dye and ink. In India the galls are called majuphal among many other names.



The galls of Quercus infectoria have also been pharmacologically documented to possess astringent, antidiabetic, antitremorine, local anaesthetic, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal and anti-inflammatory activities. The main constituents found in the galls of Quercus infectoria are tannin (50-70%) and small amount of free gallic acid and ellagic acid.


The wide range of pharmacological activities of this plant might support the efficacy of extract preparation of Quercus infectoria that are widely used in Malaysia for treating many kinds of health problems since many decades ago. The nutgalls have been pharmacologically documented on their antiamoebic,anticariogenic and anti-inflammatory activities, to treat skin infections and gastrointestinal disorders.


Quercus infectoria can be used as a thickener in stews or mixed with cereals for making bread.

Also known as Majuphal in Indian traditional medicine, manjakani has been used as dental powder and in the treatment of toothache and gingivitis.

The so-called "Aleppo tannin" is Tannic acid gained from Aleppo oak galls, which displays unique chemical properties essential in the preparation of gold sols (colloids) used as markers in Immunocytochemistry.

Nowadays, gallnut extracts are also widely used in pharmaceuticals, food and feed additives, dyes, inks, and metallurgy.

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